Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

From scales and semitones to pentatonics and cadence patterns. It's all about the science behind the expression, here.

Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby Docinterlude » 10 Nov 2013 09:35

I'll start a new Topic to help people out on music theory and their questions. I'll post here some advice and tutorials. I'll give you hints about Orchestration, Choir, Instruments, etc. Post your question and I'll gladly help.

Topics you can discuss:

Music Theory;
Recognizing intervals;
Harmony;
Scales;
Cadences;
Voice Leading;
Instrument Sections;
Instrument articulations and techniques;
Building, Forming and spelling Chords;
Counterpoint; (Still studying this, I can help you only to the 1st, 2nd and 3rd species)

Post anything you want to know.

Cheers,

Docinterlude
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The Augmented Sixth Chords

Postby Docinterlude » 10 Nov 2013 09:36

Augmented Sixth Chords

If you guys studied music theory or composition classes, I think you guys are acquainted with this progression. I'll explain this lightly and omiting the Inversion of these chords and Enharmonic changes.

Image


This progression as the same function as the Dominant 7th, since the sound sounds like a Dominant 7th, but this progression is special! It works as Pre-Dominant since you need to actually resolve to the actual Dominant, like Secondary Dominants! Lets imagine this case! 6b - 1 - 4# (Ab - C - F#). Ab to F# sounds like a minor 7th, doesn't it? In terms of sounds it is correct... but in terms of theory it isn't. In this case it is an Augmented 6th Interval!

There are 3 types of Augmented 6th chords! Althought there is another one which is not really an augmented 6th but its progression is very uncommon being the Neapolitan 6th chord! I'm using "C Major Scale" for explanation purposes!

Sorry for my english! :lol:
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Italian Augmented Sixth (It6) - This one is the most common one. It has a very noticeable cadence to the Dominant!(6b - 1 - #4), 6b is the minor 6th and #4 is the augmented 4th, since the interval distance is an augmented 4th (C;F#). It resolves to the dominant, so 6b decends to 5 and 4# ascends to 5. So that, 5 is G. So you finish the resolution to G-major. Why are we omiting the 5th from the italian augmented chord? The 5th in this case b3 (Eb) would resolve to 2 (D), but like this is classical Theory, this can't happen. We would be inputing the most common enemy and error of the composer in the classical Era. Parallel 5th's happen to be between Ab and Eb; G and D.

Image


French Augmented Sixth (Fr6) - This one is common more in the Impressionism Era, it is more associated in the 19th century. It is the same thing as the Italian but it has an additional tone, the 2nd (D). So it forms like this (6b - 1 - 2 - #4). The D doesn't need to move because you can't suffer with parellel 5th's mistake! It is referenced to be using the Whole Tone or Hexatonic Scale!

Image


German Augmented Sixth (Gr6) - This one is very complex and not easy to explain, because it's form and resolution is diferent than the others! The German sixth is almost equivalent to the Italian Sixth but has an additional tone b3 (Eb). Do you remember what I said about the Italian 6th that they omited the 5th because of contrapunctual and voice-leading issues? Here is that chord where things happen! (Magic Shmagic *snort*). So the Form is 6b - 1 - b3- #4. Unlikely the other 2, this one has 2 options to resolute this chord...

1 - Omit the 5th! There is a reason why this chord is hardly used by many classical composers. It is because of its voice-leading problems! Beethoven has used it a lot. the b3 can not go to 2 or 1, so that being an issue! If you omit the 5th, you have an happy Italian 6th Chord! :razz:

2 - Use contrary motion (oblique motion) to avoid the awful parallel 5th's! This is heavenly remedy for this solution! Thank god for the experts like Bach, have been such experts on contrapunct. You can resolve this cadence to a I 6/4 or i 6/4 to intensify the the Dominant even more. After this progression, you can finally resolve to the dominant. Many people respell the b3 to a #2, for a similiar voice leading as b3.

Image

i 6/4 progression to resolute to the Dominant!

Image

Parallel 5th's!


Thank you for reading this tutorial! I hope I could help some people out!


Cheers,
Docinterlude
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Secondary Dominants (Tonicization)

Postby Docinterlude » 10 Nov 2013 10:07

"Secondary Dominants? I thought it had only one Dominant?"

Don't worry with the phrase above, I made it up... :razz:

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Secondary Dominants (Tonicization)


Secondary Dominants are actual Dominants that can be part of any of the 12th half-tones in an harmonic stance.

Image

What does this mean? It means that they are not real dominants, they are artificial dominants. Lets start with the fact that it is an important factor in your music. The other way of saying it is Tonicization and you are probably wondering, what is a "Tonicization?"

Tonicization comes from "Tonic", the first degree, note or tone of a scale. Lets imagine C Major... What is the tonic of C Major? It is C! The first note of the scale.

But what is the concept of tonicization. To be fair, Secondary Dominants are part of Tonicization and not the Tonicization itself. It is majorly playing with Tonics. In the fact you can change the Tonic from simple modulations or micro-modulations.

E.g: I - IV - V7/V - V7 - I

The V7/V is a great of exemple of a secondary dominant. What is the Dominant of the Dominant? You need to think twice. The Dominant of C Major is G. But the Dominant of the Dominant, which is G, it is D. So like following up a circle of fifths if you want if it is made in the Dominant. So just saying, G turned out to be the Tonic for a second. If you you are dealing with Secondary Dominants, you need to think on a scale degree you want. I - ii - iii - IV - V - vi - viiº - VIII. From this you can form what you want to do. Althought, a secondary dominant should be slightly shorter than a modulation.

You can form them anywhere you want. E.g:

I - V - V7/iii - iii -V/ii - ii7 - V7 - I;

I - iv6 -(IV - V7)/V - V7 - vi7 - (iiº7 - V7)/iii - iii - IV - V7 - I

The Dominant of the third degree of C Major, which is E and the Dominant being B. Same thing for D and A.


Image

Image

This one is very complex but it will give you an idea how it works.


Cheers,
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Circle of Fifths and Fourths - Major and Minor Scales.

Postby Docinterlude » 10 Nov 2013 13:51

Circle of Fifths and Fourths

Image


So many people wondered what is this. I am not going to make it very hard to understand; I'll actually simplify some of my latin so that I can explain this very easily.

The Circle of Fifths, consists knowning on which Key you're signed in. Lets imagine in this case. How many tones has a chromatic scale? It has 12, 7 (white) + 5 (black).

How do you form it and how do you know it? Easy, The Circle of Fifths has a neat trick, counting the Dominants... beginning from C. Try to use the Major and Minor Scales models for more examples, which is below the Circle of Fifths and Fourths Teaching.

Don't Forget you can move upwards in the keyboard and downwards too!


You can do it like this. What is the Dominant of C Major? I think you know the answer, because it is G. So you have G Major, why does it have that Sharp? Like I stated before, you need to see the Major and Minor Scale Models to fully understand this concept. Now, after you got the G, and since we are in G Major, we need to move on, you need to count another 5th above G. That would be D now, so D Major. If you keep repeating this, you will reach to C# which has 7 Sharps, the entire scale is sharps only!

For Flats, it is the same process, but isntead of going up, we go down below the middle C (C4 or C3), so 5th down C is F. We get 1 flat and F Major. Then a 5th down below F, we get Bb (2 Flats), etc... If you keep doing this you, will reach Cb Major, which has 7 Flats, likewise for sharps, it is the entire scale!

You can keep going on and on on this forever, but I request you shan't. Here is why. Above C# Major, if we go another 5 up, we get G#Major (Same as Ab major (4 Flats)), the The Leading tone isn't no more F# but Fx. I think you understand this clearly, the musician, that would be Reading the sheet music, will have an hard time reading the sheet music, because he'll have to guess on what key the piece is in, he has to read the sharps and Double Sharps and all that jazz...

Image

G# Major, the musician will have a hard time reading the scores...

Image

The Solution if you want to compose for G# Major, use the enharmonic Ab Major.

So that is why we request the use of Enharmonic Scales. What is the Enharmonic scale of G#. Yes, that is right, Ab. Ab Major only uses 4 Flats. So compare for 1 Double Sharp and 6 Sharps, for 4 Flats... The Musician, would read the piece in Flats rather than the piece that is in G# Major. You have to use common sense and rules for this. Same thing for Flats too! If you have Fb Major, You can always use E major which is the same thing, enharmonically, you don't have to use so many flats for something that is 4 Sharps.


Image

Fb Major, same thing like G# Major... the musician will have a hard time reading the scores when using this signature...

Image

Solution if you want to compose for Fb Major, use the enharmonic E Major

How do I know the minor scale of each tonality? I know the relative minor of C Major is A minor, but how do you figure it out? Easy, always count a minor third (3m) down from the Tonic of the Major Scale or simply using more theory, you'll get to the point that is the 6th degree of the scale (Sub Mediant). You can figure it out, when you study intervals a little bit better.

The Circle of Fourths is the same thing as the Circle of Fifths, but it changes one thing. Instead of the sharps going up, they go down and flats go up.


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Major and Minor Scales


For more moral and knowledge, Circle Fifths was invented when tonalism showed up as guide to help the musicians but before tonalism was invented, there was Modalism. Modal have been in existance since ancient greece, so you can thank the greeks for bringing up the Modal Scales!

There are 7 modal scales that you should know:

Ionian (I), this is known as the C major Scale;

Dorian (D), very useful for russian minor music;

Phrygian (E), divides in Major Phrygian and Dominant Phrygian;

Lydian (F), this is good for jazz;

Mixolydian (G), good for blues;

Aeolian, this is known for the natural minor scale that we all know about;

Locrian, this scale is known for their altered chords and the first triad chord being a Diminished chord.



The Tonalism is going to pickup these 2, Ionian and Aeolian, for Major and Minor.

Image

For exemple a Major Scale model, you better write this down in paper, from the 3rd to the 4th (E - F) and 7th to the 8th (B - C) is a natural minor second (2m). All the others, are major seconds, if you are not counting with black keys. The picture above will show you.

It is the same for the Minor Scale model too, but with some diferences, there are types of minor scales (of course there are many other, but I am only counting with the essential 3), Natural, Harmonic and Melodic. The Natural minor has natural minor seconds too, but they are slightly diferent from the major, they are on the 2nd to the 3rd (B - C) and the 5th to the 6th (E - F).

Image

Harmonic Minor - First of all, why is this scale called Harmonic Minor? The answer is simple, it is to be used as/for Harmony purposes. This scale have a tone that alters, that one is Leading tone, unlike the Natural scale, which is all natural notes or keys. The Harmonic Minor, has 1 Accidental note. But why the leading tone? It is known because of the Dominant Chord. E.g: A Minor Dominant is E. In the natural scale, The Dominant is a minor chord but in the harmonic Minor scale it is a Major Chord all because of the leading tone has been raised an half-step! So you can describe it with Vmaj - Imaj and not vm - Imaj.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G# - A | A - G# - F - E - D - C - B - A


Melodic Minor - This scale is very close to the harmonic minor, has another accidental note to be added. This time it is the Sub Mediant, the 6th note of the scale which is raised and half-step too.
This scale is used more often for melodies and melodious passages. This scale unlikely the others, has a slight difference. It is not the same when going up and down. When you ascend in the scale, you use the F# and G# but when you descend, they become natural. Therefore, when you ascend you use the melodic scale, but when you descend you need to use the natural scale. However, this scale had more use in the baroque ages.

A - B - C - D - E - F# - G# - A | A - G - F - E - D - C - B - A


Cheers,
Docinterlude
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby Docinterlude » 10 Nov 2013 19:59

If I can be a further help, post your question, doubt here. I'll actually try to make it easy for you (simplify it).

P.S: I'll find a better source for imagines, but right now, I'll get used to get some images from Google.

Cheers,
Docinterlude
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby itroitnyah » 10 Nov 2013 22:04

Damn son, are you trying to get your masters or PhD in music theory and composition? your composition levels must be simply phenomenal from how much you know about music theory.

I sort of wish I knew more about music theory, but I'm learning other things right now. Do you have any tips for, I guess getting "pitch perfect" hearing and being capable of detecting what notes are being played and what scale a song is in right off the bat? I can figure these things out mostly by mimicking the note by voice and then finding the note on a piano, but I'm pretty interested in getting better at detecting pitch and scale. I suppose just practice, right?
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby Darong27 » 10 Nov 2013 22:35

I don't know ANY music theory. What is the best place to learn some, for free? I mean actually learn. Not the, "Go to THIS website to learn to play scales!" I just need a place where I can start from the ground up.

Anything would be appreciated.
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby Callenby » 10 Nov 2013 23:04

itroitnyah wrote:I sort of wish I knew more about music theory, but I'm learning other things right now. Do you have any tips for, I guess getting "pitch perfect" hearing and being capable of detecting what notes are being played and what scale a song is in right off the bat? I can figure these things out mostly by mimicking the note by voice and then finding the note on a piano, but I'm pretty interested in getting better at detecting pitch and scale. I suppose just practice, right?

Sight singing is often taught separately from theory. It's a whole other skill set and requires, as you say, practice.

Very, very few musicians I know actually have perfect pitch. You were either born with or you weren't. The rest of us have to train to approximate it, sometimes by remembering one specific pitch (like the high note from a song they enjoy) and then juxtaposing that to the given pitch. You also need to learn how to identify each interval for this to really work.

That probably sounds like it's boring and too much work, but that's the way it is.

Darong27 wrote:I don't know ANY music theory. What is the best place to learn some, for free? I mean actually learn. Not the, "Go to THIS website to learn to play scales!" I just need a place where I can start from the ground up.

Anything would be appreciated.

Enroll in music school. I'm sorry, but that's the best way. If that's just not in your budget you can try looking for free online classes via the link in my signature. Barring that you should probably find someone to teach you individually. Learn multiple instruments and sight singing, get textbooks and sheet music, and study a lot. You might have noticed that these things cost money. What you are asking for (to learn the whole of music theory for free) I don't think is quite possible, not unless you're willing to learn it piecemeal over a hell of a long time.

I would recommend setting smaller goals for yourself. First commit to learning only the basics. That's simple enough and can be covered by visiting a few websites. Then choose something to tackle next, like basic chord progressions, then all the different scales, then advanced chords. (Or something like that.) This way you can set the pace of your own education. It takes years to learn all this stuff even if you are in a conservatory, but you can cover the basics mostly on your own. A lot of it simply has to do with how dedicated and disciplined you are.

Also, ask yourself how much you truly need to know, and how much use do you actually expect out of something. For example, if you don't plan on making any atonal music at all then that's something you might want to put off learning (though, ideally, you'd still know all about it).

Finally, ask questions here! Specific questions, that is, because ones like "how do I learn theory?" don't help us help you.
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby Darong27 » 10 Nov 2013 23:22

Thanks Callenby. Helps quite a bit.

I will just cut it all into sections and see where it goes from there. I guess I can always post back on this or other forums if I get stuck anywhere.
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby itroitnyah » 11 Nov 2013 06:56

I know you said not a website thingy, Darong, but this website is great for learning music theory. It pretty much teaches everything from the very very basics, such as what a grand staff is, to the Neapolitan chords. It also has ear training lessons and such. Definitely worth it to check it out.
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby Fimbulin » 11 Nov 2013 11:22

Docinterlude, do you have a skype? I have a theory help thread, but I feel like you know how to express your thoughts to unknowledgeable people better than I do.

Also, to work on perfect pitch (which most everyone can develop if they are persistent), whenever you are near a musical instrument or pass one on the way to the kitchen, sing a note using the letter name (eg- "C SHARP") you think you are singing and then play the note on the instrument to check. It's a great exercise for pianos but most people don't have pianos in their houses anymore.

For scales, once you get into studying the different kinds of scales and modes, you will automatically start recognizing them. It just takes a small amount of dedication and time.
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby Docinterlude » 11 Nov 2013 11:55

Fimbulin wrote:Docinterlude, do you have a skype? I have a theory help thread, but I feel like you know how to express your thoughts to unknowledgeable people better than I do.

Also, to work on perfect pitch (which most everyone can develop if they are persistent), whenever you are near a musical instrument or pass one on the way to the kitchen, sing a note using the letter name (eg- "C SHARP") you think you are singing and then play the note on the instrument to check. It's a great exercise for pianos but most people don't have pianos in their houses anymore.

For scales, once you get into studying the different kinds of scales and modes, you will automatically start recognizing them. It just takes a small amount of dedication and time.


My Skype is docinterlude.castro, if you want to communicate me, give me a call ^^

It is true, I have yet to work in perfect pitch. I'm trying to develop that, but honestly, it is hard. Very hard! The best way is that I had an instrument next to me. In this case Piano.
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby Docinterlude » 11 Nov 2013 12:01

Darong27 wrote:I don't know ANY music theory. What is the best place to learn some, for free? I mean actually learn. Not the, "Go to THIS website to learn to play scales!" I just need a place where I can start from the ground up.

Anything would be appreciated.


The best place to learn for free, for me is wikipedia and other sites... People surely hate wikipedia, but in music, it is not that bad. Actually it is explained a bit firmly forgetting a few main points. Another way is that you need a music theory book, for help. You can find it maybe in a near Library or shop. They are not so expensive. I request it more than watching online!

Cheers,
Docinterlude

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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby Alycs » 11 Nov 2013 13:56

These are actually really interesting, though I have to ask:

From your part on the secondary Dominant notes in the 12 tone scale, you say that you can transpose the tonic note from C to D for periods, (which would rely heavily on a shiftable tonics). But then later in your Circle of Fifths article you were allowing for enharmonic transitions between keys because both have fixed pitches (which implies a fixed tonic).

Question: What sight transposition method are you using? Fixed or Movable Do?
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby CitricAcid » 11 Nov 2013 14:50

Alycs wrote:These are actually really interesting, though I have to ask:

From your part on the secondary Dominant notes in the 12 tone scale, you say that you can transpose the tonic note from C to D for periods, (which would rely heavily on a shiftable tonics). But then later in your Circle of Fifths article you were allowing for enharmonic transitions between keys because both have fixed pitches (which implies a fixed tonic).

Question: What sight transposition method are you using? Fixed or Movable Do?

If his answer is Fixed Do, I would love to know what theory book he's using. I don't think I'd even heard of Fixed Do until after I graduated. And then I couldn't find any info on theory from that perspective. I could only ever find it mentioned as a footnote that read like, "Fixed Do exists, but is confusing and uncommon."
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby Docinterlude » 11 Nov 2013 15:46

Alycs wrote:These are actually really interesting, though I have to ask:

From your part on the secondary Dominant notes in the 12 tone scale, you say that you can transpose the tonic note from C to D for periods, (which would rely heavily on a shiftable tonics). But then later in your Circle of Fifths article you were allowing for enharmonic transitions between keys because both have fixed pitches (which implies a fixed tonic).

Question: What sight transposition method are you using? Fixed or Movable Do?



I follow the structure of a major scale, because I know from the 3rd to the 4th is a natural half step and the 7th to the 8th likewise. Which in this case would be very obvious for major scale, and there are reasons why there are sharps and flats, because of the Ionian mode scale which is the same as Diatonic C. We now use Diatonic C as the main name because we don't say Ionian mode anymore. Don't get me wrong, jazz people frequently use it, because Jazz derives from the Greek Modes a lot! But in Baroque, Classicism it isn't. People will still think we are in the Modal Era and not Tonalism...

The Secondary Dominants can only shift for slight period, It is part of Tonicization but not Tonicization itself. Tonicization consists of what you said, for periods (which isn't the whole piece itself...), but Secondary Dominants, which I like to say micro or mini modulations, should be even shorter because they only represent the dominant. Tonicization is actually a modulation by itself. So you tonicize the Tonic of any note besides of the main Tonic, for exemple: I will modulate in C the Em, so I'm on the key of minor for a while and use everything that is from E Minor. A Secondary Dominant, is a Dominant or Dominant 7th from any key you want but they have to resolve to their tonic. B7 - Em - F - C (V7/iii - iii - IV - I). You have to think that it is some sort of an artificial Dominant.

The Circle of Fifths, you have consistant Tonality, wether tonality you choose will always be that tonality unless you modulate (your only get away of this). If you are writing in the key of G, then you should keep G. You can modulate to anything else, but always respect the key you wrote or It will be wrong in other words... You can use both Tonalities if you want, but here's the thing always go simpler on the musician who is reading it, it is slightly easier reading Db Major than C# Major same for Fb Major and E Major. It is an enharmonics game for the musician who is using them.

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And if you are refering to Sight Transposition of an Instrument...?

We use Fixed Do. We have all the notes, like Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Si. I am from Portugal! ^^

I hope this helped.

Cheers,
Docinterlude
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby Docinterlude » 11 Nov 2013 16:36

CitricAcid wrote:
Alycs wrote:These are actually really interesting, though I have to ask:

From your part on the secondary Dominant notes in the 12 tone scale, you say that you can transpose the tonic note from C to D for periods, (which would rely heavily on a shiftable tonics). But then later in your Circle of Fifths article you were allowing for enharmonic transitions between keys because both have fixed pitches (which implies a fixed tonic).

Question: What sight transposition method are you using? Fixed or Movable Do?

If his answer is Fixed Do, I would love to know what theory book he's using. I don't think I'd even heard of Fixed Do until after I graduated. And then I couldn't find any info on theory from that perspective. I could only ever find it mentioned as a footnote that read like, "Fixed Do exists, but is confusing and uncommon."


CitricAcid, I ain't sure if I'll take that as criticism or not...
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby CitricAcid » 11 Nov 2013 16:48

No criticism here. I've honestly never been able to find any info on theory from the Fixed Do perspective. It's apparently a school of thought that I could stand to at least dabble in.
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby Docinterlude » 11 Nov 2013 17:10

CitricAcid wrote:No criticism here. I've honestly never been able to find any info on theory from the Fixed Do perspective. It's apparently a school of thought that I could stand to at least dabble in.



I use the "Fixed Do", because I am from a Romantic Language.

I thought from 'Transposition Topic' you guys were refering to transposition of instruments... So I wrote something about the Clarinet in Bb... I feel ASHAMED now... :lol:

Because here in Portugal, we have different Terms. Now I do understand the Moveable Do and Fixed Do in english, you guys are refering to the scale.

Movable Do - Do Re Me Fa Sol La Ti Do

Fixed Do - Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Si Do

I hope you that helped. :wink:

Cheers,
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby CitricAcid » 11 Nov 2013 17:14

The "Do" in "Fixed Do" is the solfège syllable (Do-Re-Mi-Fa...). In theory as I learned it, if you are singing a passage that modulates into a different key, you change what pitch "Do" is when you change keys. As I understand it, in Fixed Do, the "Do" pitch never changes regardless. For instance, if you are in the key of C, you sing the major scale like this:

Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Ti, Do.

If you modulate to A minor, then in Movable Do you would sing the (natural) A minor scale like this:

Do, Re, Me, Fa, Sol, Le, Te, Do.

In Fixed Do, that same A minor scale would be sung like this:

La, Ti, Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La.


Personally I find this confusing, but I know I've heard of people who think this way.
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby itroitnyah » 13 Nov 2013 16:33

I'm having trouble with the vocabulary, which vocab is never my strong point. So when I'm trying to learn cadences, and it's trying to tell me that for a plagued cadence the progression should go from V > anything but I, I only vaguely know that means that the progression should go from a major fifth to anything but a major first, and I'm still doubting whether I'm actually understanding this correctly.

Would you mind going over vocabulary from very basic music theory (such as vocabulary from simple as the name of scale degrees and the roman numerals that accompany them, to vocabulary from the neapolitan chords)? I'm really struggling to learn much past scales, chords and diatonic triads because the vocabulary that the site I'm using confuses me, and I find myself constantly wondering what a certain piece of information is trying to tell me, and I'm learning next to nothing.

Thanks
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby Docinterlude » 15 Nov 2013 12:40

What cadence are you speaking of? I think you are speaking of a plagal cadence, I think. A Plagal cadence works IV - I, in C Major, F - C. It is often known by the Amen Cadence. I'll create a tutorial about this in Harmony and Cadences.

Don't worry, vocabulary isn't that hard. Try to learn step by step and you will be fine. Don't try to rush or you won't understand it correctly.

The scale degree names you are mentioning are;

Tonic - Supertonic - Mediant - Subdominant - Dominant - Submediant - Leading tone - Tonic

Neapolitan chord works with like bII chord, you can use it like in minor chords works perfectly ok, in major too. I'll make a tutorial sooner about this issue... don't worry. :grin:
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby itroitnyah » 15 Nov 2013 23:16

Alright, thanks.dsgafhdfhsdfghsdfhdfsh
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby itroitnyah » 18 Nov 2013 15:57

Alright, hey guys. For the people who want to learn music theory but don't want just some site and can't find a teacher, you can watch this series of youtube videos made by a music teacher somewhere in Canada. He's studied music theory for 8 or so years, and despite him doing one shot takes and not always having the best drawing examples and stuff, he's incredibly helpful and it's great.
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Re: Docinterlude - Music Theory Help - Tutorials and Advice

Postby Callenby » 18 Nov 2013 18:15

For those of you who are trying to learn theory on your own and feel completely lost, I copied down the table of contents from my textbook so you know what sort of things to be looking for, a good order in which to learn them, and overall get a better sense of the vocabulary. This is just a guide, though, so you'll have to look up the information on your own (I implore you to buy the textbook or another like it. It's worth the investment). This list covers more than 700 pages and this only scratches the surface of music theory.

Part One
I. Assorted Preliminaries: Pitch (staff, clefs, solmization, the hexachord system, accidentals); Modes, Scales and Evolution (church modes, musica ficta), Metric Matters (meter, the dot, early meter signatures, hypermeter), Sound (overtones, the legend of Pythagoras, equal temperament)
II. Intervals: Intervals of the Major Scale (enharmonic intervals, inversion, simple versus compound, diatonic versus chromatic, consonance versus dissonance)

Part Two (Diatonic Harmony)
I. Basic Harmonic Structures: Triads, Inversion, Seventh Chords
II. Musical shorthand - lead sheets and figured bass: Lead-Sheet Notation (lead-sheet chord symbols, expanded symbols, passing tones), Figured Bass Notation
III. Harmonies of the Major and Minor Scales: The Diatonic Chords (diatonic triads in major keys, Roman numeral symbols, diatonic triads in minor keys, showing inversion), Functional Tonality (the circle of fifths, progression, retrogression, repetition, ground bass patterns)
IV. Cadences/Harmonic Rhythm: Cadences (cadences and style, standard cadences, cadential variants), Harmonic Rhythm

Part Three (Melody)
I. Melodic Pitch and Rhythm: Range, Interval Structure and Gesture, Repetition (motive, sequence, types of sequence), Melodic Tonality (scales and arpeggios, large-scale events, recognizing important pitches, tonic dominant axis)
II. Embellishing Tones: Step-Step Combinations (passing tones, neighbor tones), Step-Leap Combinations (appoggiatura, escape tone, changing tones), Step-Repetition Combinations (anticipation, suspension and retardation, other ways of designing suspensions), Embellishing Tones and Style (multiple embellishing tones, embellishing tones in jazz, embellishing tones as motives, the embellishing chord tone)
III. Melodic Form: The Phrase (phrase length, cadences, phrase relationships), Combining and Extending Phrases (the period, parallel period, contrasting period and phrase group, double period, cadential elision, phrase extension, phrasing and style)
IV. Composing Melodies: Constructing a Melody from a Motive (the initial melodic idea, the harmonic factor, devising and harmonic plan), Composing a Melody to a Harmonic Pattern

Part Four (Voice Leading)
I. Melodic Principles of Part Writing/Voicing and Connecting Chords: Melodic Principles (ranges, interval motion, leaps, sensitive tones, soprano-bass counterpoint), Voicing Chords (spacing, doubling, alternative doublings), Connecting Chords (consecutive perfect consonances, voice crossing and overlap, common tones, no common tones)
II. The Chorale/Part writing with Root Position Triads: The Chorale (melodic features), Part-Writing with Root-Position Triads (the "short rule" for connecting chords, fifth relationship, third relationship, second relationship, part writing the deceptive cadence), Part Writing Suspensions
III. Part Writing with Triads in Inversion: First Inversion (inversion and bass lines, doubling in first inversion, why the soprano?, chord connection, inversion and harmonic weight, suspensions), Second Inversion (cadential six-four chord, passing six-four chord, pedal six-four chord, arpeggiated six-four chord, variants), Voice-Leading Practices: A Summary
IV. Part Writing Seventh Chords: Dominant-Functioning Seventh Chords (the V7, chord member of not?, the unresolved leading tone, the ascending seventh, delayed resolution, the half and fully diminished seventh chords), Nondominant Seventh Chords (seventh chords and chain suspensions, the I7)

Part Five (Basic Chromatic Harmony)
I. Secondary Function: Secondary Dominants (the V/x, tonicization, the tonicizing tritone, the V7/x, common musical contexts, harmonic sequence), Secondary Leading-Tone Chords, Jazz and Popular Styles (V7/x, melodic and harmonic chromaticism, ii7-V7/x, viio7/x), Voice Leading and Harmonization
II. Modulation I: Modulation by Common Chord (crossing the "tonal border", multiple common chords), Chromatic Modulation (common contexts, multiple accidentals, modulation or tonicization?)

Part Six (Counterpoint)
I. The Art of Countermelody: Two-Voice Counterpoint (motion, 1:1 counterpoint, converting 1:1 to 2:1, essentials of counterpoint, converting 2:1 to 4:1, jazz and popular styles), Fun with Counterpoint (creating a bass, melodizing the bass, buffing the bass, adding a third voice, polyphonic or homophonic?)
II. J.S. Bach's Two-Part Inventions: The Invention (motive and countermotive, contrapuntal devices), Invention No. 6, Analysis (invertible counterpoint, tonality, harmony, implied harmony, form)
III. The Fugue: The Basics of Fugue (subject and answer, the exposition, the counter subject, the development, the recapitulation, summary, stretto and counterexpositon, the coda), Analysis (analytic comments)

Part Seven (Advanced Chromatic Harmony)
I. Mixing Modes: Change of Mode (mode and mood, keys related through mode mixture, enharmonic change of mode), Modal Borrowing (common borrowed harmonies, modal borrowing and style), Chromatic- Third Relationships (diatonic- vs. chromatic-third relationship, common chromatic-third relationships)
II. Altered Pre-dominants: The Neapolitan Sixth Chord (the harmonic nature of the Neapolitan, insertions before the V), Augmented Sixth Chords (constructing an augmented sixth chord, voice leading)
III. Other Chromatic Harmonies: Altered Dominants, Embellishing Diminished Seventh Chords (functional versus embellishing o7, spelling and resolving the embellishing o7)
IV. Modulation II: Recognizing Signals - The Three Cs (chromatic pitches, clue chords, cadences, thinking through a modulation), Back to the Tonal Border (chromatic modulations), The Secret Lives of Chords (the enharmonic Gr+6 chord, the enharmonic diminished seventh chord)
V. Selected Harmonic Structures and Techniques: Triadic Extensions (dominant ninth chords, secondary dominant ninth chords, other ninth chords, eleventh chords, the dominant eleventh chord, the minor eleventh chord, thirteenth chords), Linear Chromaticism, Harmonic Sequence

Part Eight (Arranging, Composing, and Analysis)
I. Harmonic Principles in Jazz: Extending the Triad (basic seventh chords and their extensions, voicing), Chord Substitution (simple toniciziation, the turnaround, extended tonicization, tritone-related chords, tritone substitution in the turnaround, substitution guideline, expanded tritone substitutions), Implied Lines (reading between the chord symbols, auxiliary chords)
II. The Blues: Blues Form and Harmonic Practice (the basic blues today, substitute harmonies, minor blues), Blues Melodic Practice (blue notes, blue-note scales, blue-note scales in minor blues), Blues Variants
III. Form, Process and Drama: Three Ways of Looking at Form (visual versus aural symmetry, motivic analysis, musical processes, similarity and contrast), Dramatic Shape (creating musical tension, texture)
IV. Binary and Ternary Forms: Statement-Restatement (the coda), Statement-Contrast (symmetric versus asymmetric forms), Statement-Contrast-Restatement (the bridge, rounded binary versus ternary form)
V. Shaping a Song: Text (text setting, form, text/melody relationships, text painting)

Part Nine (Twentieth-Century Techniques)
I. Syntax and Vocabulary: Syntax (planing, the non-functional dominant seventh chord, the augmented triad, modality, modal cadences), New Melodic and Harmonic Structures (pentatonic scales, quartal/quintal harmonies, whole-tone scale, other scales)
II. Neotonality: New Tonal Adventures (quartal harmonies, polychords, polytonality, bimodality, pandiatonicism), Stravinsky and Bartok (Stravinsky, Bartok, pentatonic melody, modality, hemiola)
III. Atonality and Twelve Tonality: Atonality (things you can do with a cell, hints for analysis), Twelve Tonality (choosing a row, finding the row)

Hope this helps and doesn't deter anyone from pursuing such an enormous subject.
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